Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. For women, the joy of motherhood is among the most important experiences of their life, yet increasing prevalence of female infertility has turned this experience quite sour.
In the female reproductive system, infertility may be caused by a range of abnormalities of the ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, and the endocrine system as well.
Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility is when a pregnancy has never been achieved by a female, and secondary infertility is when at least one prior pregnancy has been achieved.
The main symptom of infertility is the inability to get pregnant. A menstrual cycle that’s too long (35 days or more), too short (less than 21 days), irregular or absent can mean that you’re not ovulating. There might be no other signs or symptoms.
In the female reproductive system, infertility may be caused by one or more of the factors below:
- Ovulation disorders – Ovulating infrequently or not at all is the primary and common cause of infertility. Disturbance in regulation of reproductive hormones by the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland or problems in the ovary can cause ovulation disorders.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) – PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and obesity, abnormal hair growth on the face or body, and acne. It’s the most common cause of female infertility.
- Hypothalamic dysfunction – Two hormones produced by the pituitary gland are responsible for stimulating ovulation each month — follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Excess physical or emotional stress, a very high or very low body weight, or a recent substantial weight gain or loss can disrupt production of these hormones and affect ovulation.
- Too much prolactin – The pituitary gland can cause excess production of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia), which reduces oestrogen production and can cause infertility.
- Damage to fallopian tubes – Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes keep sperm from getting to the egg or block the passage of the fertilized egg into the uterus.
- Endometriosis – Endometriosis occurs when tissue that typically grows in the uterus implants and grows in other places. This extra tissue growth — and the surgical removal of it — can cause scarring, which can block fallopian tubes and keep an egg and sperm from uniting.
- Uterine or cervical causes
Benign polyps or tumours (fibroids or myomas) are common in the uterus. Some can block fallopian tubes or interfere with implantation, affecting fertility.
Problems with the uterus present from birth, such as abnormal shaped uterus, can cause problems becoming or remaining pregnant.
Cervical stenosis, a narrowing of the cervix, can be caused by an inherited malformation or damage to the cervix.
Sometimes the cervix can’t produce the best type of mucus to allow the sperm to travel through the cervix into the uterus.
Certain factors may put you at higher risk of infertility, including:
- The quality and quantity of a woman’s eggs begin to decline with age. In the mid-30s, the rate of follicle loss speeds, resulting in fewer and poorer quality eggs.
- Besides damaging your cervix and fallopian tubes, smoking increases your risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. It’s also thought to age your ovaries and deplete your eggs prematurely.
- Being overweight or significantly underweight may affect ovulation. Getting to a healthy body mass index (BMI) might increase the frequency of ovulation and likelihood of pregnancy.
- Excess alcohol consumption can reduce fertility.
- Reduce stress. Some studies have shown that stress can cause couples to have poorer results with infertility treatment.
Charak M2-tone tablet is clinically tested Nutritional Supplement for female infertility which is known to improve pregnancy outcomes in females with unexplained infertility by improving uterine health, improving ovary function and enhancing the endometrial health to sustain healthy full-term pregnancy. It is used in the treatment of irregular menstrual periods. It helps to treat, regularize and control heavy bleeding and may help to treat spotting between periods as well as abnormal bleeding. This Nutritional Supplement for female infertility can also treat symptoms of emotional imbalance during periods such as lethargy, anxiety and stress.